Higher Criticism What Is It? Norman Oetker .. English Class Reynosa Mae Hong Son Thailand Mexico St. Charles Missouri Hmong Missionary

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November 2008 Reynosa Mexico

Norman Oetker English Class Reynosa Mexico

Below are more thoughts by other writer’s on the concepts of Higher Criticism.

 

  • By Studying A Well-Established Tradition such as the Exodus, it is possible to see the different emphases placed upon it by historians, psalmists, and apostles.
  • An interesting though rather speculative study is redaction criticism, which arose from form criticism and investigates the editorial motiviation involved in the production of a work with particular reference to the viewpoint expressed.
  • Thus the chronicler was concerned almost exclusively with the Davidic succession and its continuity in postexilic Judea and, as a result, developed a theology of history that was unique in antiquity.
  • Again, John’s Gospel deals selectively with the data of Christ’s life and presents them theologically to the readers so that they might be saved.
  • This standpoint makes the Fourth Gospel distinctive as an evangelistic document.
  • While the processes of structuralism are interpreted in a variety of ways, its basic concept appears to be that form and content are so firmly united that the latter cannot be understood properly unless the significance of the former is grasped clearly.
  • This reinforces the values of form criticism, and prevents the truth of God from being considered as a purely abstract concept.
  • As with other disciplines, higher criticism needs to be handled carefully because of the ease with which results can be obtained by pure speculation in the absence of external data.
  • Since the Reformation, biblical study has been littered with unsubstantiated suppositions, hypotheses, and theories, not infrequently based upon some concept of organic evolution.
  • This can be seen clearly in the work of nineteenth century liberal scholars, whose studies were generally so lacking in external controls, such as archaeological evidence, that unwarranted liberties were taken with both biblical interpretation and historical processes.
  • Because these approaches went far beyond the available relevant evidence in the conclusions adopted, they also cast doubt upon the reliability of the method involved.
  • Responsible critical scholarship will resist such tendencies, partly because the purely speculative can be so easily demolished by opposing factual evidence, but more particularly because the integrity of the Scriptures is thereby seriously undermined. R. K. HARRISON

 

  • See also TUBINGEN SCHOOL; ENLIGHTENMENT, THE; INTERPRETATION OF THE BIBLE.
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  • Bibliography. E. J. Young, Introduction to the OT; R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the OT;D. Guthrie, NT Introduction; G. L. Archer, ZPEB, I, 584-90; R. K. Harrison et al., Biblical Criticism: Historical, Literary and Textual.
  • Higher Criticism
  • "Quote"
  • As with other disciplines, higher criticism needs to be handled carefully because of the ease with which results can be obtained by pure speculation in the absence of external data.
  • Since the Reformation, biblical study has been littered with unsubstantiated suppositions, hypotheses, and theories, not infrequently based upon some concept of organic evolution.
  • This can be seen clearly in the work of nineteenth century liberal scholars, whose studies were generally so lacking in external controls, such as archaeological evidence, that unwarranted liberties were taken with both biblical interpretation and historical processes.
  • Because these approaches went far beyond the available relevant evidence in the conclusions adopted, they also cast doubt upon the reliability of the method involved.
  • Responsible critical scholarship will resist such tendencies, partly because the purely speculative can be so easily demolished by opposing factual evidence, but more particularly because the integrity of the Scriptures is thereby seriously undermined. R. K. HARRISON

 

  • Higher Criticism
  • Text:  This term describes the study of Scripture from the standpoint of literature, as opposed to "lower criticism," which deals with the text of Scripture and its transmission.
  • Higher criticism thus has three main concerns: (a) detecting the presence of underlying literary sources in a work; (b) identifying the literary types (Gattungen) that make up the composition; and (c) conjecturing on matters of authorship and date.
  • The term "higher criticsm" might seem to carry either a mystic or a sinister meaning, but it is in fact a process that all scholars follow to varying degrees.
  • In order to obtain a proper understanding of the nature of biblical writings it is important to investigate the character of the sources.
  • Sometimes this brings history to bear upon the work, as in the book of Ezra, where a section of the edict of Cyrus liberating captive peoples in Babylonia in 538 B.C. is quoted (Ezra 1:2-4).
  • In the same book, a state document in Aramaic which gave instructions about the rebuilding of the Jerusalem temple (Ezra 6:3-5) was recovered after a search of the archives, and found to have been written at Cyrus’s command also.
  • This memorandum supported Jewish claims that the temple was being rebuilt by royal authority.
  • The recognition of various types of literature is also important because they can be compared with secular counterparts.
  • Thus OT legal enactments often have much in common with those of other Near Eastern nations, while the NT letters can be better understood by comparison with what is known about the form, style, and language of first century A.D. secular letters.
  • The fact that a work is ascribed to an author need not mean that it was written by that person.
  • Thus the Assumption of Moses, while seeming to come from an ancient, reputable author, proves on examination to be early first century A.D. in date, and therefore its contents and purpose must be judged accordingly.
  • Several other approaches have developed to assist the scholar in the use of higher criticism.
  • One is form criticism, which encourages the recognition of literary units according to their form.
  • This is helpful in studying the parables, miracles, and sayings of Christ, for example, or in the recognition that the Fourth Gospel is written in the form of an ancient Babylonian tablet, complete with title, text, and colophon.
  • A close form critical examination of Genesis indicates that chapters 1-36 comprise eleven distinct sections marked off by the phrase "these are the generations of," and this material also appears in traditional Babylonian tablet form.
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